The Special Forces Command (KOPASSUS), formerly called the Sandi Yudha Forces Command and KOPASSANDHA (which also means Special Forces Command), are trained in intelligence gathering, a variety of special operations techniques, sabotage, and airborne and seaborne landings. Founded on 16 April 1952, KOPASSUS was reorganized and reduced in size in 1985, and by 1992 KOPASSUS forces numbered some 2,500 army personnel identifiable by their distinctive red berets organized into two operational groups and one training group.
Kopassus troops in formation on their anniversary celebration, December 2003.
By the late 1990s KOPASSUS numbered some 6,000-strong, an increase in the number of troops, but below that of 1985. Headquarters at Cijantung, East Jakarta, KOPASSUS had expanded to five Groups, with Group IV specifically handling intelligence operations along with the KOPASSUS Joint Intelligence Unit [SGI].
Kopassus troops in parade formation.
Kopassus self-defense show.
Circa year 2001, Kopassus reorganizes its personnels into some 5,000-strong forces. The new organization is as follows:
- Group 1 Para Commando (Taktakan, Serang, Banten) with 3 batallions
- Group 2 Para Commando (Kandang Menjangan, Kartasura, Solo) with 3 batallions
- Group 3 Intelligence (Cijantung, Jakarta)
- (1) Para Commando batallions (independent) (Semplak, Bogor)
- (1) HQ Detachment (Cijantung, Jakarta)
- (1) Unit-81 Anti-Terrorists (Cijantung, Jakarta)
- Pusdikpassus / Special Forces Training Center (Batujajar, Bandung)
Kopassus in camouflage attires and their rovers.
Kopassus troops from Group I conducted an urban combat training (above and right).
Kopassus troops in beach ceremony.